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变成孩子才能理解孩子

发布时间:2019-12-22 作者:叶小红 来源:中国教育报

JINNIANLAI,KAIFANGXINGCAILIAO(ERTONGYOUXISHIKEYIYIDONG、CAOZUO、KONGZHIHEGAIBIANDEJIANDANYIDECAILIAO)ZAIZHICHIYOUERXUEXIYUFAZHANZHONGDEZUOYONGPOSHOURENMENGUANZHU,HENDUOGUONEIWAIZHUANJIAYEJILITUIJIANYOUERYUANSHIYONGCILEICAILIAO。NEIME,ZHEIXIECAILIAOTOUFANGHOUDESHIJIXIAOGUORUHENI?WOMENDUIYIXIANJIAOSHIJINXINGDALIANGDIAOYANHOU,DEDAODEFANKUICHUHUYILIAO:ZAITOUFANGCHUQI,HAIZIMENSIHUHAIHUIQUBAINONG,SHIJIANZHANGLEJIUWURENWENJIN,JIHUCHENGLEBAISHE。

WEIHEHUICHUXIANZHEIZHONGQINGKUANG?CONGBIAOMIANSHANGFENXI,KAIFANGXINGCAILIAO“YULENG”DEYUANYINSIHUZAIYUYOUER,YINWEIBUZHIDAOZENMEWANHUOJUEDEBUHAOWANCAIBUQUXUANZE。DANCONGSHENCENGCIFENXI,WOMENBUNANFAXIAN,DAOZHIZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGDEYUANYINYUJIAOSHIZHICHIBUZUBUWUGUANXI。RUGUOJIAOSHIZAIGUANNIANSHANGDUIKAIFANGXINGCAILIAODEJIAZHIQUEFAZHENZHENGRENTONG,NEIMEJIUBUHUIZAISHIJIAN、KONGJIANSHANGJIYOUERYUCAILIAODECHONGFENHUDONGTIGONGBAOZHANG,YEBUHUIZHUDONGQUYANJIUKAIFANGXINGCAILIAODECHENGXIANFANGSHI、GUANLICELVE,YIJISHIYOUHUDONGZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI。CIWAI,YOUYUKAIFANGXINGCAILIAOZAISHIYONGGUOCHENGZHONGHUISUNHAOERXUYAOBUDUANBUCHONG,JIAZHIYOUERDEBUDANGCAOZUOYERONGYIDAOZHIHUANJINGHUNLUAN,SHIJIAOSHIFUCHUEWAIDEGUANLIJINGLI,YINCIYENANMIANHUIXIANZHIYOUERDUICAILIAODEXUANZEHETANSUO。

WEIGENGHAODIBANGZHUJIAOSHILIJIEKAIFANGXINGCAILIAO、ERTONGJIJIAOSHISANZHEZHIJIANDEGUANXI,WOMENCHANGSHIYUNYONGJIAOSEBANYANDEFANGSHI,RANGJIAOSHIXIANGYOUERYIYANGWANKAIFANGXINGCAILIAO,TIYANCAOZUOHETANSUOKAIFANGXINGCAILIAODAILAIDEKUAILE,LIJIEYOUERZAIYUCAILIAOHUDONGZHONG,JIAOSHIRUHEJIYUSHIYIZHICHI。

角色模拟:赋予多重的角色体验

CHUANTONGDERENZHIGUANRENWEI,RENZHIHUODONGDEHEXINSHIDANAODEJIHUO,XUEXIGUOCHENGSHI“LISHEN”DE,BUXUYAOSHENTIDECANYU。YINCI,DALIANGDEJIAOSHIPEIXUNHEJIAOYANHUODONGDOUSHITONGGUO“TING”YU“JIANG”SHIXIANJIAOYULINIANDECHUANDI。JUSHENRENZHILILUN(Embodied Cognition)ZERENWEI,XUEXIBUZHISHIYIZHONGZHONGSHUSHENJINGCANYUDECHOUXIANGFUHAOJIAGONGGUOCHENG,HAIYUSHENTIDEHUODONGMIBUKEFEN。WOMENZHISUOYINENGLIJIETAREN,CONGERGAIBIANZIJIDEXINGWEI,JIUSHIYINWEI“WOMENNENGYIJUSHENMONIDEFANGSHIZHIXINGTONGYANGDEDONGZUO”。XUEXISHIYIZHONG“QIANRU”SHENTIHEHUANJINGDEHUODONG,QIANRUSHENTIYIWEIZHEXUEXIDESHIJIANXING,YIWEIZHEGETIZHIJIEJINGYANDEZHONGYAOZUOYONG,QIANRUHUANJINGZEYIWEIZHEZHISHICHANSHENGYUQINGJING。RENHEZHISHIDOUSHIJUTIDE、YILAIYUQINGJINGDE。YINCI,YAOGAIBIANHEZHONGGOUJIAOSHIGUANNIAN,SHENTILIXINGDESHIJIANHETIYANBIBUKESHAO。WOMENJIANGJIAOSEBANYANYINRUJIAOYANHUODONG,ZHUYAOMUDESHITONGGUOJIANGSHENTIJUANRUYOUXIDEJIAOSEBANYANHUODONG,JIHUOJIAOSHIDUIJIAOYUQINGJINGZHONGCAILIAO、ERTONG、JIAOSHISANZHEGUANXIDEJINGYANRENZHI。

“CAICAIWODENIANLING”ZHEIGEJIAOSEBANYANYOUXIJIUSHIJIYUZHEIYANGDEXIANGFASHEJIDE。WOMENSHITUTONGGUORANGCHENGRENMONIYOUERSHIYONGKAIFANGXINGCAILIAOKAIZHANYOUXI,TIYANYOUERYOUXIDEKUAILEHEYUDAODEKUNNAN。WOMENJIANGCANYUHUODONGDEJIAOSHI(YOUSHIYEYAOQINGJIAZHANGCANYU)FENCHENG3—4ZU,MEIZU6—8REN,QIZHONG4—6RENBANYAN“YOUER”,YIRENBANYAN“JIAOSHI”,LINGWAIYIRENDANREN“YOUXIGUANCHAYUAN”。

BANYAN“YOUER”DEJIAOSHIYAOSHIXIANSHANGLIANGHAOSUOBANYAN“YOUER”DENIANLING,BINGJIANDANTAOLUNYIXIAYOUXINEIRONG;BANYAN“JIAOSHI”DEJIAOSHI,YAOZAIYOUXIGUOCHENGZHONGGUANCHABINGHUIYING“YOUER”;BANYAN“YOUXIGUANCHAYUAN”DEJIAOSHI,YIGUANCHASHOUJIDEXINXIWEIYIJUPANDUAN“YOUER”DEKENENGNIANLING,FENXI“YOUER”ZAIYOUXIGUOCHENGZHONGKENENGFASHENGDEXUEXI,PINGJIA“JIAOSHI”DEZHICHISHIFOUSHIYI。“JIAOSHI”HE“YOUER”YAODUIGUANCHAPINGJIASHIFOUFUHEYOUXIDEZHENSHIQINGKUANGJIBEIGUANCHAZHEDEZHENSHIYITUZUOCHUFANKUI,CONGERBANGZHUGUANCHAZHEJIAOZHENGGUANCHAFENXIDEZHUNQUEXING,RANGSUOYOUCANYUJIAOYANDEJIAOSHINENGCONGDUOZHONGSHIJIAOFENXIWENTI。

YAOZHENZHENGBANYANHAOZHEISANGEJIAOSE,DUIJIAOSHIYOUYIDINGDETIAOZHAN。BIRU,JIAOSHIXUYAOJUBEIGUANCHAFENXIXINGWEIDENENGLI、FENXIPINGJIADENENGLI、HUIYINGHEZHICHIDENENGLI。JIBIANSHIBANYAN“YOUER”DEJIAOSHI,YEXUYAOJUBEIYIDINGDEGUANYU“CAILIAOYUHUODONGDELEIXING”HE“BUTONGNIANLINGYOUERZUOYONGCAILIAODEFANGSHI”ZHIJIANGUANXIDEJINGYAN。

角色对话:促进不同角色相互理解

DUIDADUOSHUJIAOSHIERYAN,“YOUERZAISHENMESHIHOUXUYAOJIAOSHIDEZHICHI”,“JIAOSHIYINGGAIZAISHENMESHIHOU、YISHENMEYANGDEFANGSHIJIERUYOUERDEHUODONG”,SHIGONGZUOZHONGZUINANBAWODEDIAN,ZAIWEIRAOKAIFANGXINGCAILIAOSUOKAIZHANDEHUODONGZHONGYEBULIWAI。YINWEIYOUERBUHUIQINGCHUDIGAOSUNI,NISUOJIYUDEBANGZHUSHIBUSHITAMENXUYAODE。RANER,JIAOSEBANYANZHIHOUDEJIAOSEDUIHUA,QUENENGBANGZHUJIAOSHIHUODEYOUXIAODEFANKUI,JINERBANGZHUTAMENSIKAORUHEDIAOZHENGSHIYOUHUDONGDEFANGSHIHECELVE,ZAIKAIFANGXINGCAILIAO、ERTONGDETANJIUYUJIAOSHIDEJIAOYUYITUZHIJIANJIANLILIANGXINGDEHUDONGGUANXI。

JIAOSEBANYANZHONGDESHIYOUHUDONGPIANDUAN:“YOUER”CONGZHONGDUODEKAIFANGXINGCAILIAOZHONGQULEYIZHIXIGUAN,RANHOUJIANGQICHAJINYIZHIZHUTONG,JIAZHUANGHEQISHUI。ZHEISHI,JIAOSHINALAIYIGENKUSHUZHIZOUGUOLAIDUI“YOUER”SHUO:“CHUNTIANDAOLE,SHUSHANGKAIMANLETAOHUA,WOMENRANGZHEIKESHUYEKAIMANTAOHUABA。NIKANYONGSHENMECAILIAOZUOTAOHUAHESHINI?”“JIAOSHI”YIBIANSHUO,YIBIANQULAIFENSEZHOUWENZHI,YONGROU、CUO、ZHANDENGFANGSHISHIFANRUHERANGKUZHISHANGKAITAOHUA,“YOUER”YEZHAOZHEZUOQILAI。

WEIJIANYANGUANCHA、JILUHEFENXIDEZHUNQUEXING,WOMENQINGBEIGUANCHADUIXIANGJIUSHANGSHUPIANDUANZHONG“JIAOSHISHIFOUZHUNQUEJIEDULEYOUERDEXINGWEIYITU、SHIFOUJIYUSHIYIDEZHICHI、SHICUJINHAISHIGANRAOLEYOUERDEYOUXI”JINXINGDUIHUA。

BANYAN“YOUER”DEJIAOSHIDUIZIJIDEJIAOSEXINGWEIJINXINGJIESHI:“WOGANGCAIDEXINGWEISHIMOFANGWOERZIZAIJIAWANYOUXIDEQINGJING,TAZAIJIALIJIUXIHUANWANJIAZHUANGHEYINLIAODEYOUXI。WOZAIXIANGTAWEISHENMETIANTIANZHEIYANGWANNI?SHIBUSHIYINWEIWOMENZHEIXIEDARENPINGSHIBUJITAHEYINLIAO,TAZHINENGZIJIZAIWANYOUXISHIZUOYIBEIYINLIAOLAIHENI?DANGWOZHEIMEXIANGDESHIHOU,WONENGLIJIEHAIZIWEISHENMEYAOYOUXILE。KESHILAOSHIQUEJIAOWOQUZUOHUA,QISHIZHEIGEHUAWOYEBUXIANGZUO,DANYINWEILAOSHIJIAOWOZUO,WOJIUZHINENGZUOBEI。”

JIAOSHIYEDUIZIJIJIERUYOUXIDEXINGWEIJINXINGJIESHI:“WOPANDUANTABANYANDESHIXIAOBANXIAXUEQIDEYOUER,YINWEIZHIYOUJIANDANDEZHUANGBANDONGZUO,ZHIHOUJIUYIZHIZAIJIANDANZHONGFUZHEIGEDONGZUO。YUSHI,WOXIANGYINGGAIRANGHAIZIZUODIANSHENME,ZHEIYANGTACAIHUIYOUFAZHAN。XIAOBANYOUERXUYAOFAZHANXIAOJIROUDEJINGXIDONGZUO,YUSHIWOJIUXIANGDAORANGYOUERWAN‘TAOSHUKAIHUA’YOUXI。”

ZHEIYANGDEDUIHUAZAIJIAOSEBANYANHOUJIUBIANDEFEICHANGZIRANHEYOUXIAO。YOUDEJIAOSHITONGGUOJIAOSEBANYANFAXIANLEJIAOSHIZHIDAOYUYOUERXIANGFAZHIJIANDEBUHEPAI。LIRU,“WOSHIXIAOBANHAIZI,ZHIXIANGHUA,SUIBIANHUA,DANLAOSHIRANGWOHUAXIAOHUA,HAIRANGWOLEIGAO,WOJIUZHAOZHELAOSHISHUODEZUO。”“WOZHISHIXIANGBASONGGUOBOKAIKANYIXIALIMIANSHISHENME,DANLAOSHIRANGWOJISONGGUOPAIHAODUI,HAIRANGWOMOMOSHENMEGANJUE,YOUXIGUOCHENGZHONGLAOSHISHUOZHEISHUONEI,WOJIUGENZHEZUO。”ER“JIAOSHI”DEBANYANZHEZEWEIZIJIDEXINGWEIBIANJIE:“KANDAOTAYIHUIERWANZHEIGE,YIHUIERWANNEIGE,XIANGBANGTA,XIWANGNENGWANCHUDIANSHENME。KANDAOTABASONGGUOYIPIANPIANBOXIALAI,JIURANGTAPAIYIPAI,RANGTAXUEXIMOSHIHEPAIXU,WOZIJIHAIXIANSHIFANLEJIZHONGPAIFA。”JIAOSECHONGTUYINFALEJIAOSHIDUIZIJIJIAOYUXINGWEIDEFANSI,ERDUIHUAZESHIJIAOSHIGENGNENGHUANWEISIKAO,SHITULIJIEYOUERDEXIANGFAHEXUYAO。

角色更新:更能欣赏、理解幼儿的创造

JIAOSEBANYANYENENGSHIJIAOSHIZAIQINSHENTIYANZHONGGANSHOUDAOWANKAIFANGXINGCAILIAODELEQU。LIRU,YIWEIBANYANZHONGBAN“YOUER”DEJIAOSHISHUO:“WOYIKAISHIDUIZHEIXIECAILIAOBUTAIGANXINGQU,ZHISHIGANJUEELUANSHINAZHEBIJIAOSHUFUJIUNALAIWANYIXIA,HUOBAIHUODUIGAO……OURANDAKAINEIGEZHUANGNIUKOUDEHEZI,TURANFAXIANLIMIANYOUHAODUOXIAODONGWU,JIULAILEXINGQU。JIUXIANGZIJIGUOJIAJIAYIYANG,NEIJIUYIBIANWANYIBIANJITAMENMANMANDACHENGFANGZI。ZHEILIANGGEXIAOPENGYOUZAICHIFAN,ZHANGJINGLUMAMADAIZHEZHANGJINGLUBAOBAOSHUIJUE……”TARENWEISHIKAIFANGXINGCAILIAOBANGZIJIBATOUNAOZHONGDEXIANGXIANGYIDIANDIANDIZHANXIAN,ZHEIYANGBIERENYENENGKANJIANWODEXIANGFA。ERGENGDUODEJIAOSHIFENXIANGLEYOUXIDAILAIDEMANZUGAN:“JUEDEZIJIXIANGGESHEJISHI。”JIAOSEBANYANRANGJIAOSHIKAISHICONGYOUERDEJIAODULIJIETAMENZAIYOUXIZHONGDEXIANGXIANG、CHUANGZAOHEYUYUE,JINERGENGNENGFANSIZIJIRICHANGDEMOUXIEYANXINGDUIYOUERHUODONGDEXIANZHIHEGANRAO。

SUIZHETAOLUNDESHENRU,“YOUER”HE“JIAOSHI”CONGGEZILICHANGCHUFA,FAXIANHETICHULEKAIFANGXINGCAILIAOSHIYONGZHONGGENGDUODEWENTI。BIRU,YOUERXIWANGBUBEIDARAODIWAN,XIWANGYOUCHONGZUDESHIJIANQUTANSUOCAILIAOBINGSHIXIANZIJIDEYOUXIXIANGFA,XIWANGZIJIZAIYOUXIZHONGDECHUANGYIDEDAOJIAOSHIDERENKE……JIAOSHIZEYUELAIYUENENGLIJIEDENGDAIHEFANGSHOUDEZHONGYAOXING,GENGLIJIEKAIFANGXINGCAILIAOZUOWEIZHICHIERTONGJINGYANBIAOZHENGDEZAITI,QIRUHECAOZUOHEWEISHENMEYAORUCICAOZUODEXIANGFAYINGGAISHOUXIANYUANYUERTONG,ERBUSHIJIAOSHIDEYUXIANSHEJI,SHENZHISHIZHIJIEDEJIAO。

QISHI,KAIFANGXINGCAILIAOZHONGJIUZHISHIYIGEHUODONGZAITI,ERZHICHIERTONGYOUXIAOXUEXIDESHIYOULIDESHIYOUHUDONG。

湖北快3《ZHONGGUOJIAOYUBAO》2019NIAN12YUE22RIDI2BAN 

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