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​青海少数民族教师异地跟岗培训的困境与对策

发布时间:2019-12-06 作者:达万吉 林星 来源:《中国民族教育》杂志

摘要:对青海两所学校少数民族教师异地跟岗培训满意度的实证调查和比较分析表明,目前青海藏区少数民族教师异地跟岗培训面临文化困境、内容困境、组织困境和成效困境。建议提升少数民族教师主体参与性,克服参训、承训学校间的文化差异和地区差异;立足学科跟岗,满足少数民族教师的培训期待;构建多元主体合作模式,促成培训双方知情共融;关注训后转化,重视双语教师的持续发展

关键词:少数民族教师;异地跟岗培训;培训困境;培训对策

2010NIAN《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2010-2020NIAN)》BANBUYILAI,GUOJIAHEDIFANGZHENGFUJIADAMINZUDIQUJIAOSHIPEIXUNLIDU,QUANMIANJIAQIANGSHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIPEIXUNGONGZUO。YUCITONGSHI,SHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIPEIXUNZHONGDEGEZHONGWENTIHEKUNNANYEFUXIANCHULAI,RUPEIXUNNEIRONGQUEFASHIYONGXING、PEIXUNFANGSHIBUSHOUHUANYING、PEIXUNXIAOGUOBULIXIANGDENG。RUHEZAIZONGJIESHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIPEIXUNGONGZUOJINGYANDEJICHUSHANGTANXUN、WANSHANGENGYOULIYUJIAOSHIZHUANYECHENGZHANGDEPEIXUNMOSHI,CHENGWEISHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIPEIXUNGONGZUODEZHONGYAOWENTI。

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调查对象与工具

DIAOCHADUIXIANG。CAIYONGZHENGQUNCHOUYANGDEFANGSHI,ZAI2016-2017NIANDUQINGHAISHENGZANGQUYIDIGENGANGPEIXUNXIANGMUXUEXIAOZHONGSUIJIXUANZELELIANGSUOMINZUXUEXIAOJINXINGDIAOCHA,QIZHONGAWEIWANQUANXIAOXUE,BWEIJIUNIANYIGUANZHIXUEXIAO。KETIZUXIANGSHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIGONGFAFANGWENJUAN160FEN,HUISHOU141FEN,YOUXIAOWENJUAN138FEN,QIZHONGAXIAO56FEN,BXIAO82FEN。

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两所学校的培训实施情况

ZAIDIAOCHADELIANGSUOXUEXIAOZHONG,AXIAOXIANYOUJIAOZHIGONG106MING,ZHUANRENJIAOSHI75MING。2015-2017NIAN,GAIXIAOJIAOSHILIANXUSANNIANCANJIAYIDIGENGANGPEIXUN。2017NIAN10YUEZHI11YUE,GAIXIAOJIAOSHIFEN3QIQIANWANGZHONGGUORENMINDAXUEFUSHUZHONGXUECHAOYANGXUEXIAOXIAOXUEBUCANXUN,CANXUNJIAOSHI80REN。CHAOYANGXUEXIAOXIAOXUEBUWEICANXUNJIAOSHIANPAILE“YIDUIYI”ZHIDAOJIAOSHI,YOUZHIDAOJIAOSHIDAILINGXUEYUANCANYUXUEXIHUODONG。CHUGENGANGGUANMO、YANXIUYIWAI,CANXUNJIAOSHIJIURUHEZHIDAOXUESHENGZIZHUYUXI、RUHESHIYONGDAOXUEAN、RUHEYUNYONGXIAOZUHEZUOXUEXIMOSHIDENGWENTIYUZHIDAOJIAOSHIJINXINGLEXUEXIJIAOLIU。CICIPEIXUNCANXUNJIAOSHIRENJUNTINGKE30YUJIECI,CANJIAMIANSHOUDAIJIAOHUODONG6CI,CANJIAXUEXIAOGUANLIJINGYANJIAOLIUHUODONG8CI。

BXIAOXIANYOUJIAOZHIGONG115MING,ZHUANRENJIAOSHI87MING。GAIXIAOZAI2016NIANSHOUCICANJIAYIDIPEIXUNXIANGMU。XUEXIAOYUANJIHUAZUZHI104MINGJIAOSHIQIANWANGJIANGSUSHENGCHANGZHOUSHISHIYANCHUJIZHONGXUE、CHANGZHOUSHIBOAIJIAOYUJITUANGENGANGPEIXUN,DANYOUYUJIAOSHIRENYUANJINZHANG,CHOUPAIJIAOSHIYOUKUNNAN,XUEXIAOSHIJIZAI2017NIAN5YUEZHI2018NIAN1YUEQIJIANFEN6QIXUANPAILE85MINGJIAOSHICANXUN。GENGANGPEIXUNQIJIAN,CHENGXUNXUEXIAOWEICANXUNJIAOSHIBIANZU,MEIZUANPAIYIMINGZHIDAOJIAOSHI。PEIXUNFANGSHIYIGERENGENGANGTINGKE、JITITINGGONGKAIKEWEIZHU,HAIBAOKUOCANGUANXIAOYUANWENHUA、CANGUANSHAONIANGONG、CANJIAJIAOXUESHALONGDENGHUODONG。CANXUNJIAOSHIRENJUNTINGKE8JIECI,ZAICHENGXUNXUEXIAOCANJIAJIANGZUO2CI。

湖北快3JIANGAXIAOYUBXIAODEPEIXUNGUOCHENGDUIBILAIKAN,ZAIPEIXUNNEIRONGFANGMIAN,AXIAOJIAOSHIYOUGENGDUOCANJIAJIAOXUECHANGGUIHUODONG、JIAOXUEYANTAOHESHANGTAISHOUKEDESHIJIANJIHUI,BXIAOJIAOSHIHAITINGLIUZAICANGUAN、TINGKEDENGBIAOCENGNEIRONGSHANG;ZAIPEIXUNFANGSHIFANGMIAN,AXIAO“YIDUIYI”DEXUEXIFANGSHIGENGYOULIYUCANXUNJIAOSHIYUZHIDAOJIAOSHIZHIJIANYOUXIAOJIAOLIU,BXIAOJIAOSHISHUANGXIANGJIAOLIUDEJIHUIJIAOSHAO,JIAOSHIFANYINGJINGCHANGYUDAO“MEIYOUJIHUIJIAOLIU”“BUHUIJIAOLIU”“YOUWENTIBUGANSHUO”DENGWENTI;ZAIPEIXUNSHISHIFANGMIAN,AXIAOJINGGUOLIANXUSANNIANDEYIDIPEIXUN,ZAIPEIXUNDESHIJIANANPAI、RENYUANGUANLISHANGJIAOWEIYANGE,ERBXIAOYOUYUJIAOSHIJINQUE,RENYUANPAICHUJIAOWEIFENSAN,PEIXUNSHIJIANJIAOJINZHANG,ZAIGUANLISHANGYEQUEFAZUZHIXING。

调查结果及讨论

总体满意度比较。如表1所示,两所学校教师对培训的总体满意度均值为4.60,表明总体上教师满意度较高。比较而言,两所学校教师在培训内容、培训方式、组织管理上的满意度差异均显著(p<0.05),A校教师明显比B校教师培训满意度更高。(见表1)

1.jpg

培训内容满意度比较。如表2所示,在培训内容6个二级维度的数据分析和比对中,两所学校对培训内容的满意度存在显著差异(p<0.05),A校培训满意度更高。

湖北快3YOUBIAO2KEJIAN,AXIAODEDEFENJUNZHIZAI4.65ZHI4.85ZHIJIAN,BXIAODEDEFENJUNZHIZAI3.78ZHI4.27ZHIJIAN。LIANGSUOXUEXIAOMANYIDUXIANGDUIZUIGAODEERJIWEIDUJUNWEI“1.6DUIBENXIAOFAZHANYOUJIEJIANXING”;MANYIDUXIANGDUIZUIDIDEWEIDUJUNWEI“1.4JIEJUELEJIAOXUEZHONGDEYINANWENTI”,QICIWEI“1.5YUJIAOXUESHIJIFEICHANGXIANGGUAN”。(JIANBIAO2)

2.jpg

培训方式满意度比较。湖北快3如表3所示,两所学校教师对培训方式的满意度存在显著差异(p<0.05),A校培训满意度更高。

PEIXUNFANGSHIXIA5GEERJIWEIDUZHONG,AXIAODEDEFENJUNZHIZAI4.68ZHI4.90ZHIJIAN,MANYIDUZUIGAOWEIDUWEI“1.3TIGONGLETAOLUN、FENXIANGDEJIHUI”。BXIAODEDEFENJUNZHIZAI4.03ZHI4.35ZHIJIAN,MANYIDUZUIGAOWEIDUWEI“1.4JIAOSHENGNEIPEIXUNGENGWEIYOUXIAO”。LIANGSUOXUEXIAOMANYIDUXIANGDUIZUIDIDEWEIDUWEI“1.5NENGGOUCHONGFENJIAOLIUHEJIEJUEYIWEN”。(JIANBIAO3)

3.jpg

组织管理满意度比较。如表4所示,A校在组织管理上的满意度总体较高,相比而言,A校培训满意度更高。

ZAIZUZHIGUANLIXIADE6GEERJIWEIDUZHONG,AXIAODEDEFENJUNZHIJIEYU4.74ZHI4.90ZHIJIAN,GEWEIDUMANYIDUCHAYIBUDA,MANYIDUZUIDIWEIDUWEI“1.5NENGGOUSHIYINGCHENGXUNXUEXIAODEWENHUAHUANJING”。BXIAODEDEFENJUNZHIJIEYU4.21ZHI4.53ZHIJIAN,QIZHONGMANYIDUZUIDIWEIDUWEI“1.6NENGGOUSHIYINGCHENGXUNSUOZAIDIDESHENGHUOHUANJING”。(JIANBIAO4)

4.jpg

讨论与分析

湖北快3DIAOCHABIAOMING,AXIAOJIAOSHIDUIGENGANGPEIXUNDEZONGTIMANYIDUMINGXIANGAOYUBXIAO,DUIPEIXUNFANGSHI、PEIXUNNEIRONGHEZUZHIGUANLIDEMANYIDUYEXIANZHUGAOYUBXIAO。SHOUXIAN,ZHEIYULIANGSUOXUEXIAODEPEIXUNZUZHILIDUYOUGUAN。YOUYUBXIAOCHENGSHOUDEJIAOXUEYALIGENGDA,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYINGXIANGLEPEIXUNSHISHIJINDUHEXIAOGUO;AXIAOZAIPEIXUNZUZHIFANGMIANGENGWEIYANGE,JIAOSHICANXUNLVGENGGAO,XUEXIXIAOGUOYEGENGWEIMINGXIAN。QICI,ZHEIYULIANGSUOXUEXIAODECANXUNCISHUHEJINGYANYOUGUAN。BXIAODIYICICANJIAYIDIGENGANGPEIXUN,DUIYIDIGENGANGPEIXUNDEFANGSHIHENEIRONGHAICHUYUSHIYING、BEIDONGXUEXIJIEDUAN;AXIAOJIAOSHIZERENWEI,JINGGUOLIANXUSANNIANDEGENGANGPEIXUN,DUIYIDIGENGANGXUEXIYUELAIYUESHIYING,PEIXUNMUBIAOYEYUELAIYUEMINGQUE,ZHUDONGXUEXIDEYUANWANGHENENGLIYEZAIZHUNIANZENGQIANG。

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湖北快3LIANGSUOXUEXIAOJUNDUIPEIXUNFANGSHI“NENGGOUCHONGFENJIAOLIUHEJIEJUEYIWEN”WEIDUMANYIDUZUIDI,BIAOMINGPEIXUNFANGSHIMEIYOUDADAOYUQIXIAOGUO。AXIAOMANYIDUZUIGAOWEIDUWEI“1.3TIGONGLETAOLUN、FENXIANGDEJIHUI”,ZHEIBIAOMINGCHENGXUNXUEXIAOZAIPEIXUNFANGSHISHANGTIXIANLEGENGANGXUEXIDECANYUXINGHEHUDONGXING。BXIAOMANYIDUZUIGAOWEIDUWEI“1.4JIAOSHENGNEIPEIXUNGENGWEIYOUXIAO”,SHUOMINGBXIAODUIGENGANGPEIXUNMOSHIBIJIAORENKE。DANLIANGSUOXUEXIAOZAI“1.5NENGGOUCHONGFENJIAOLIUHEJIEJUEYIWEN”WEIDUSHANGMANYIDUJUNWEIZUIDI。JIAOSHIMENZAIFANGTANZHONGBIAOSHI,YOUYU“GANJUEZISHENBIJIAOLUOHOU”“YOUXIEZIBEI”“HAIPAJIAOLIU”“BUGANDUITAMEN(CHENGXUNJIAOSHI)TIWENTI”DENGYUANYIN,YINGXIANGLEGENGANGZHONGJIAOLIUXUEXIDEXIAOGUO。

湖北快3LIANGSUOXUEXIAODUIZUZHIGUANLIZHONG“NENGGOUSHIYINGCHENGXUNXUEXIAODEWENHUAHUANJING”“NENGGOUSHIYINGCHENGXUNXUEXIAOSUOZAIDIDESHENGHUOHUANJING”WEIDUMANYIDUJIAODI,BIAOMINGCANXUNJIAOSHIZAIPEIXUNQIJIANCUNZAIDIYUHEWENHUASHIYINGNANTI。ZAI6GEERJIWEIDUZHONG,AXIAOMANYIDUZUIDIDEWEIDUWEI“1.5NENGGOUSHIYINGCHENGXUNXUEXIAODEWENHUAHUANJING”,BXIAOMANYIDUZUIDIDEWEIDUWEI“1.6NENGGOUSHIYINGCHENGXUNXUEXIAOSUOZAIDIDESHENGHUOHUANJING”。JIAOSHIMENZAIFANGTANZHONGBIAOSHI,PEIXUNQIJIANDUICHENGXUNXUEXIAOSUOZAIDIDEQIHOU、YINSHI、YUYAN、DIYUWENHUADENGFANGMIANDOUYOUBUSHIYINGZHICHU。

针对培训困境的解决策略

湖北快3TUPOWENHUAKUNJING,TISHENGSHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIDEZHUTICANYUXING,KEFUCANXUN、CHENGXUNXUEXIAOJIANDEWENHUACHAYIHEDIQUCHAYI。WENHUAKUNJINGSHIZHIQINGHAIZANGQUSHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIZAINEIDICHENGXUNXUEXIAOGENGANGXUEXIGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUYUKEGUANCUNZAIDEMINZUWENHUACHAYIHEDIYUWENHUACHAYIERCHUXIANDEBUSHIYUKUNHUO。DIAOCHABIAOMING,WENHUACHAYIYINGXIANGZHEPEIXUNSHUANGFANGJIAOSHIDEJIAOWANGHEHUDONG;KUAWENHUAJIAOLIUYUESHUNCHANG,GENGANGPEIXUNZHONGDERENJIJIAOWANGYUEYOUXIAO。CANXUNJIAOSHIYINGXUEHUIZHUDONGGOUTONGHEZHUDONGSHIYING,YOUYISHIDIJIANSHAOHEXIAOCHUWENHUACHAYIYINFADEGEHEHEYALI,LIXINGDIXUANZEHEXUEXISHIHECANXUNXUEXIAOHEZISHENJIAOXUEDEZHISHIHEJINGYAN。CHENGXUNXUEXIAOBUJINYAOCHUANGZAOYUCANXUNJIAOSHIHUDONGDEJIHUIHEKONGJIAN,HAIYAONULIYINGZAOXIANGHUZUNZHONG、BICIJIAOLIU、NAIXINYANTAODEGUANXIHEXUEXIFENWEI,BANGZHUCANXUNJIAOSHIGENGHAODICANYUGENGANG。

TUPONEIRONGKUNJING,LIZUXUEKEJIAOXUEGENGANG,MANZUQINGHAIZANGQUSHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIDEPEIXUNQIDAI。NEIRONGKUNJINGDEZHUYAOBIAOXIANSHI,GENGANGPEIXUNNEIRONGBUNENGJINGZHUNJUJIAOYUBUTONGXUELI、ZHICHENG、PEIXUNJINGLIDESHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIDESHIJIXUQIU。NEIDIXUEXIAOZAIFAZHANLINIAN、JIAOXUEGUANLIJINGYAN、JIAOSHIJIAOXUEDENGFANGMIANYOUHENDUOZHIDEZANGQUSHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIXUEXIZHICHU,ZHEIXIEYOUSHILIYINGBAOZHENGGENGANGPEIXUNDECHENGXIAO。DANZAIJUTIPEIXUNGUOCHENGZHONG,CANXUNJIAOSHIWANGWANGGANDAOZISHENDEPEIXUNXUQIUWUFADEDAOHUIYINGHEMANZU。DIAOCHABIAOMING,BUTONGDESHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIDUIYUPEIXUNHUAIYOUGONGTONGDEQIWANG,JINENGGOUZHENDUIZISHENYUDAODEJIAOXUEWENTIHUODELILUNZHIDAOHESHIJIANCELVEZHIDAO,CONGERTISHENGZISHENDEJIAOXUEZHILIANG。JIANYIGENGANGPEIXUNLIZUYUXUEKEJIAOXUEGENGANG,BAHANGSHISHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIDEXUEKEZHUANYEZHISHIHETIGAOXUEKEJIAOXUENENGLIZUOWEIPEIXUNDEZHUYAONEIRONGHERENWU。CHENGXUNXUEXIAOYINGYANGELVXINGCANXUNJIAOSHIYUZHIDAOJIAOSHI“YIDUIYI”XUEXIMOSHI,YOUZHENDUIXINGDITISHENGCANXUNJIAOSHIDEJIAOXUESHUIPING。

湖北快3TUPOZUZHIKUNJING,GOUJIANDUOYUANZHUTIHEZUOMOSHI,CUCHENGPEIXUNSHUANGFANGZHIQINGGONGRONG。ZUZHIKUNJING,JIMUQIANDEYIDIGENGANGPEIXUNZHUYAOYICANXUNXUEXIAOZUOWEISHISHIZHUTI,MEIYOUGOUJIANQIJIAOYUGUANLIBUMEN、CANXUNXUEXIAO、CHENGXUNXUEXIAOSANFANGZHIZEFENMING、HELIXIEZUODEZUZHISHISHITIXI。LIANGSUOXUEXIAODEMANYIDUCHAYIBIAOMING,CANXUNXUEXIAODEZUZHIGUANLISHUIPING、CHENGXUNXUEXIAODEPEIHEZHUANGTAI、JIAOYUGUANLIBUMENDEDUDAODIAOKONGZHIJIEYINGXIANGZHEPEIXUNMUBIAODEDACHENG。JIANYIJIAOYUGUANLIBUMENJIAQIANGDUIGENGANGPEIXUNQUANCHENGDEGUANLIHEJIANDU;CANXUNXUEXIAOYUCHENGXUNXUEXIAOJIAQIANGHUDONGHEZUO,ZAISHUANGXIANGTANTAOHEJIAOLIUZHONGZHIDINGHELUOSHIZHENDUISHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIDEPEIXUNZHIZE、FANGANHEBAOZHANGCUOSHI。ZHIYOUGEZHUTIZAIGENGANGPEIXUNGUOCHENGZHONGXINGCHENGYOUXIAODEHEZUOMOSHI,CAINENGCUCHENGZHENGGEPEIXUNTUANDUIYIGENGZHUANZHU、GENGJIJIDEJINGSHENZHUANGTAITOURUDAOPEIXUNHUODONGZHONG,DACHENGZHIQINGGONGRONG。

TUPOCHENGXIAOKUNJING,GUANZHUXUNHOUZHUANHUA,ZHONGSHISHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIDECHIXUFAZHAN。CHENGXIAOKUNJING,ZHISHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHICANJIAPEIXUNZHIHOU,BUNENGYOUXIAOZHUANHUAPEIXUNSUOXUE,BUNENGGAIBIANYUANYOUJIAOXUESHIJIAN。ZHEIZAIDIAOCHAZHONGTIXIANZAIYIXIALIANGGEFANGMIAN:YISHI“WEINAN”,RENWEICHENGXUNXUEXIAODEJIAOQING、XUEQINGYUCANXUNXUEXIAOCHAYIJIAODA,ZAIZISHENDEJIAOXUEZHONGNANYISHIJIAN;ERSHIYOUSHIJIKUNNAN,ZAIXUNHOUJIAOXUETANSUOHESHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONGYUDAOLEKUNNAN,QUEWUCHUXUNQIUZHICHIHEJIEDA。CHENGXUNXUEXIAOYINGJINKOUQINGHAIMINZUDIQUJIAOSHIDEJIAOXUEJINGYANHEJIAOXUESHUIPING,CONGDUIXUEKEZHUANYEZHISHIDELIJIE、KECHENGBIAOZHUNDERENSHIDAOJIAOXUEFANGFADEXUANZEHEYUNYONG、JIAOXUEZHENDUANYUPINGJIADESHISHIDENGFANGMIAN,XITONGTISHENGCANXUNJIAOSHIDEJIAOXUESHUIPING;CANXUNXUEXIAOYINGZHONGSHIJIAOSHINEIHUA、GUHUAPEIXUNCHENGGUO,YUCHENGXUNXUEXIAOJIANLIZHANGQIGUANXI,JIJIZHENGQUCHENGXUNXUEXIAODUISHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIXUNHOUJIAOXUEJIYUBIYAOZHIDAO;JIAOYUGUANLIBUMENYINGJIAQIANGPEIXUNCHENGGUOPINGGU,JIANGSHAOSHUMINZUJIAOSHIZHUANYEFAZHANHEJIAOXUEZHILIANGTISHENGZUOWEIPINGJIAPEIXUNXIAOGUODEZUIZHONGYIJU。

参考文献:

湖北快3[1]CHENXIANGMING,WANGZHIMING:《YIWUJIAOYUJIEDUANJIAOSHIPEIXUNDIAOCHA:XIANZHUANG、WENTIYUJIANYI》,《KAIFANGJIAOYUYANJIU》2013NIANDI4QI。

[2]WUQIONG,WANGZHIXING,WANGJUNJIAN:《JIAOSHIGENGANGPEIXUNCUNZAIDEWENTIJIQIGAIJIN》,《JIAOXUEYUGUANLI》2018NIANDI7QI。

作者:达万吉,工作单位青海师范大学教育学院

LINXING,GONGZUODANWEIJIAOZUOSHIFANGAODENGZHUANKEXUEXIAO

来源:《中国民族教育》杂志2019年第11期

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